Has Spain always spoken Spanish? Actually, no.
As we all know, Spanish is a language of Latin origin, like so many others. However, if we research it more carefully, we will find that it is composed of features of the most diverse origin.
The Old Iberian Peninsula
If we were to go a few centuries back in time and walk the streets of the Iberian Peninsula of the 11th century BC, we would be able to observe that Ligurian, Celtic, Iberian and even Phoenician languages cohabited in this region. The Phoenicians advanced from the powerful city of Cártago, in Africa, towards the south of the Peninsula. On the island of Ibiza, they established a colony.
However, in 218 BC, a Roman army landed in Ampurias to fight the Carthaginians. This battle was an event of vital importance for the development of our current Spanish because the Carthaginians were defeated and the territory now in the hands of the conquerors was impregnated with the culture and language of the Roman Empire.
The Iberian Peninsula was declared a Roman province under the name of “Hispania”, and its conquerors colonised most of the territory and exploited its human and natural resources. Although the old pre-Roman languages of the Peninsula fought for survive for many years, they were gradually weakened by the progressive imposition of the official language of the Romans, Latin. Only one of them has stayed alive since then, Basque or Euskera, the official language -together with Spanish- of the Basque Country and the northwest region of Navarre. A peculiarity of the Basque language is that, despite its longevity, it still retains its original grammatical characteristics.
The Influence of Other Languages on Spanish
We can find traces of the contact of this language with Spanish in words like izquierdo (left), boina (beret), aquelarre (coven) and pizarra (board). We can also find morphological relics in the Spanish language taken from the languages that were displaced, such as the endings -ez, -az and -oz present in surnames like Martínez, Díaz, and Muñoz, and everyday words such as perro (dog), manteca (butter), balsa (raft), páramo (moor), barro (mud), and losa (slab). Geographical designations such as Asturias, Álava, Huelva, Córdoba, Soria, Salamanca, and Zamora, as well as those of the rivers Duero, Tajo, and Jarama also make up this heritage. Cádiz, Málaga, Cartagena, Mahón, Ibiza and even Hispania, on the other hand, are of Ligurian origin.
The Spread of Latin
In contrast to the progressive weakening of the old languages of the Peninsula, Latin started spreading exponentially. It is believed that the survival of Latin over other languages that constitute part of the Indo-European heritage is the result of the establishment of the Christian pontiffs in the city of Rome and the consequent implementation of Latin as the universal language of the Catholic Church. Such was the strength of this unstoppable instrument of evangelisation that, even after the Germanic invasion of the fifth century, it was the conquerors who were forced to abandon their mother tongue. Of the varieties of this linguistic code, it was Vulgar Latin that spread until giving birth to our current Romance languages. Nouns such as guerra (war), sala (room), jabón (soap), tapa (lid), parra (vine), ropa (clothes), ganso (goose); adjectives such as blanco (white), rico (rich); and verbs such as ganar (win), ataviar (dress), agasajar (entertain) y guardar (save) are a legacy of the Visigothic people.
The Birth of Romance Languages
It was during the post-war period that the decline of the socio-cultural level and the isolation of a crushed society contributed to cultural dissociation and to the manifestation of different dialects that would become our current Romance languages several centuries later.
The first literary texts written in Romance languages were the jarchas. These works were written in Mozarabic, the official language of the Andalusian territory. However, this code gradually disappeared as its speakers were incorporated into the Christian kingdoms of the North, where Galician-Portuguese, Asturian-Leonese, Spanish, Navarre-Aragonese, and Catalan coexisted. All of them, sooner or later, would spread out towards the south of the region.
Initially, Spanish was considered a barbaric language spoken in a small territory in the northeast of Burgos. However, the political and military initiative of the Castilian spirit played a leading role in the early conquest of the León and Navarre-Aragon territories. The revolutionary character of this community and its geographical distance from the rest of civilisation endowed this dialect with a personality that set it apart from its brotherly counterparts. One of its distinguishing features was the replacement of the initial f of the word with an h sound that resembles that of a laxly realised j. Little by little, this sound started losing its tension until it disappeared. Currently there are traces of it only in writing. Some examples are the voices humo (from Latin fumum), hecho (from Latin factum) and hijo (from Latin filium).
Spanish Gains Prestige
Spanish was established as a language after the production of the first songs of deeds, of verbal diffusion, like The Song of My Cid, where the matter of inherited honour and nobility are approached in contrast to conquered nobility. Later, during the reign of Alfonso X the Wise, the composition of the first literary and scientific works codified in a language other than Latin began to emerge. This fact constituted the vindication of the Castilian language and the conquest of the respect of all learned people.
Castilian or Spanish?
Last but not least, in 1492, the year of the conquest of America, the first Spanish grammar was published by Antonio de Nebrija. From this moment on, the terms Castilian and Spanish begin to be used interchangeably. Some of the authors of the great classics of literature immediately following this event are Garcilaso de la Vega, San Juan de la Cruz, Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Góngora and Quevedo, whose works are testimonies of the history of humanity.
After this brief overview of the history of Spanish, we can say that the richness and complexity of this Romance language lie in the mixture of its essence and in the socio-cultural events that have taken place over thousands of years. That is why trying to resist linguistic change in an attempt to preserve its purity through normative moderation is tantamount to failing to realise that it is not institutions but speakers who create language from their experience in the world in order to construct new meanings and realities.
This article was written by Ana Laura Prado, Latin American Spanish linguist, researcher, and tutor.